The European Central Bank (ECB) and the Court of Auditors both become fully-fledged Union institutions. The ECB retains its own legal personality and its independence vis-à-vis the other institutions and the member States in order to protect its strict monetary policy.
The Committee of the Regions acquires the right to bring a case before the Court of Justice for infringement of the principle of subsidiarity in areas falling within its field of competence.
The new Treaty does not change the legal instruments (regulation, directive and decision) provided for in the present Treaties. Where it does innovate is in making a distinction between legislation, adopted by ordinary or special legislative procedure, and non-legislative acts. Rather confusingly, both legislative and non-legislative acts can be adopted in the form of a regulation, a directive or a decision. The salient difference between legislative and non-legislative acts lies in the procedure for their adoption.
Enhanced cooperation will be easier under the new Treaty. It provides that enhanced cooperation may apply to any area outside the exclusive competence of the Union. Enhanced cooperation will be possible once at least nine member States participate, provided that certain conditions are met, regardless of the number of member States in the Union. The new Treaty makes it simpler to authorize enhanced cooperation, and it will be easier for other member States to join in later.
That's it for now. Next time we'll be looking at qualified majority voting.